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RAE 2008

Rearch Assessment Exercise 2008

Lewis Jones


Research Outcomes

Outcome 1 - 19-tone equal temperament tenor recorder
These two identical 19-tone equal temperament tenor recorders, designed by Jones, and made by Jones and David Armitage in 2001, are the first woodwind instruments specifically designed to play in an equal division of the octave other than 12 (semitones) or 24 (quartertones).
Jones pioneered the playing of the instrument, and demonstrated it with Rachel Barnes in the first public performance at the Royal Festival Hall in 2002.
Unique features of the instruments, which are otherwise based on late renaissance recorders, are the use of five keys to cover five additional toneholes, and a unique tonehole lattice suited to the intervals of 19-tone equal temperament. The instrument thus offers to musicians a new pitch vocabulary, optimally available to the player, without compromise in tuning or tone quality. Prototypes were made in order to arrive at a satisfactory tonehole lattice and disposition and design of the keywork. Two identical finished instruments were made so as to demonstrate two-part harmony and the intrinsic qualities of the intervals of the 19-tone division of the octave.

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Outcome 2 - 19-tone and 24-tone equal temperament trumpet
The 19-tone and 24-tone equal temperament trumpet was designed by Jones and Cowie with the collaboration of other project partners including Robert Watson, who advised on the solenoid activation of the trumpet valves and designed a circuit. The trumpet was fabricated by Cowie.
This instrument is exceptional in having four valves, each with interchangeable valve slides, so as to be able to play not only in 12-tone but also in 24-tone and, uniquely, in 19-tone equal temperament; and is the first to have valves activated by electromagnetic solenoids. It thus offers a new pitch vocabulary, optimally available to the player, without compromise in tuning or tone quality. Stephen Altoft worked over several months with the composer Donald Bousted to explore the qualities and possibilities of the instrument, and the first public performance, at the Royal Festival Hall in 2002, featured pieces composed by Bousted. A Call for Scores, through the Society for the Promotion of New Music, produced a varied repertoire of new pieces by other composers.

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Outcome 3 - The Analysis and Determination of the Tuning System in Audio Musical Signals
The tuning system is an essential aspect of a musical piece. It specifies the scale intervals and contributes to the emotions of a song. There is a direct relationship between the musical mode and the tuning of a piece for modal musical traditions. In a broader sense it represents the different genres.
In this paper, delivered at the Audio Engineering Society's 123rd convention, as part of the session, P17: Signal Processing Applied to Music, algorithms based on spectral and chroma averages are developed to construct patterns from audio musical files. Then a similarity measure like the Manhattan distance or the cross-correlation determines the similarity of a piece to each tuning class.

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Outcome 4 - Playing Orfeo Part 1: Monteverdi’s violini and viole da brazzo
This is the first published part of a substantial four-part article in the Fellowship of Makers and Researchers of Historical Instruments Quarterly on the instrumentation of Claudio Monteverdi’s "favola in musica", L’Orfeo, whose publication in parts will extend into 2008.
The pitch ranges of the violini and viole da brazzo violini are compared, and the violini are identified as a sub-set of the family of viole da brazzo. In preparation for the study as a whole, all of the instrumental ranges in the score are tabulated, and English translations of all of the rubrics pertaining to instrumentation and instrumental practice are appended.

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