|Author(s)||Márta Fülöp, Mihály Berkics, Ian Davies, Merryn Hutchings and Alistair Ross|
|Editor||A. Ross, The Experience of Citizenship|
Corruption exists everywhere, in all countries of the world, although economic theories do not discuss corruption extensively; this may be a consequence of the fact that where economic theories were born in the Anglo-Saxon countries - the level of corruption is relatively low (Hámori, 2004). Kaufmann and Siegelbaum (1997) define the concept as 'abuse of official power in order to acquire private gain' (in Hámori, 2004). According to Rose-Ackermann (1975) corruption has three main characteristics: (a) a participant in the economy obtains money or other rewards in an illegal way (b) the bribed person (agent) acts for the sake of another person or institution against the interest of the person or institution (owner) he/she represents (c) the person to be bribed has power deriving either from the insufficient functioning of the market or from his institutional position.