|Author(s)||Maria Luísa A. V. de Freitas|
|Editor||Alistair Ross, Young Citizens in Europe|
This paper surveys and analyses changes in civic and social education: civic education in the First Republic (1910 - 1926); the Dictatorship period and the omnipresence of moral and civic education; the beginning of democracy and the suspicion of moral and civic education; the curriculum reform (1989) and the discussion about "personal and social education" and "civic education". The paper explores the choice between integrated studies and specific courses. It concludes with an analysis of the rise of citizenship education at the end of the 1990s.