|Author(s)||Niemczyñski , A:|
|Editor||Europe of Many Cultures, Alastair Ross Ed.|
In the European history of educational ideas and practices one finds four main interpretations of the value and meaning of modern education in human life. The idea of cultural transmission can be traced back to the thinkers of French Enlightenment and summarised as giving access for future generations to all the crucial and valuable achievements in knowledge, skill and cultural values of previous generations. The idea of naturalism found its original formulation in Rousseau's treatise Emil and together with later versions stresses the expression of innate (good) human potential as the aim of education. The British notion of the education of gentlemen, together with the Humboldian education of humanis, are two versions of the romantic idea of education for the appreciation of core human values. Education as the provider of efficient action in pursuing the satisfactions of life, and happiness, is the twentieth century addition of pragmatism to the philosophy of education.