|Author(s)||Sarantis K. Chelmis|
|Editor||A. Ross, Learning for Democratic Europe|
Citizenship education in a democracy can be defined as any form of intentional education aimed at instilling the skills and knowledge necessary to function effectively in, and thereby contribute to, democratic process (Berkowitz, 1998: p. 1). Specifically, citizenship education aims at the following (Alleman & Rosaen, 1991; Berkowitz, 1998): a. developing student's cognition, including, knowledge about laws, rules, public affairs, constitutional rights and political processes. This embodies the development of conceptual knowledge; an understanding of basic political concepts like power, force, representation and individuality (see Crick, 1977); reasoning and problem solving skills; ability to conceptualise a socio-political problem, discern the socio-political concepts involved, realise the way they are interconnected and propose solutions; meta-cognitive awareness and skills; the ability to reflect on knowing and thinking. b. developing student's social-emotional characteristics, including self-esteem, self concept, interpersonal relationships, the ability to clearly communicate ideas, to actively listen to and work collaboratively with others, as well as acting independently within the context of the community. c. developing student's moral characteristics, including beliefs and attitudes, values, sense of justice, caring for the other and pro-social behavior.