|Editor||P. Cunningham (ed.) Identities and Citizenship Education: Controversy, crisis and challenges|
In general terms, Viriathus, Vercingétorix and Boudicca were represented as warriors who confronted the Roman invasions in Europe between the second century B.C. and the first century A.D. These mythical-historical figures became both national and local icons on several different accounts. Portugal, England and France integrated and promoted their image as dignified ancestors. Since education became a major contributor to citizenship identity and nation building, it seems interesting to follow these three heroes on their journey through educational programmes, from the patriotic beginnings until nowadays.