London Metropolitan University Research Institutes
 

Relational accountability and transformational leadership: Implications for education and multicultural settings

Author(s) Fortlouis Wood, L.  
Publisher London: CiCe  
Year 2011  
Editor P. Cunningham & N. Fretwell, Europe's Future: Citizenship in a Changing World  
Age group -  
Keywords/Abstract
Interdisciplinary studies of leadership have burgeoned over the past 25 years with the development of models grounded in clinical, organizational, social, and educational psychology. Transformational leadership in particular (Bass, 1999; Seltzer, Numerof, & Bass, 1989), has emerged as an important approach to enhancing the motivation, commitment, creativity, and tenacity of individuals and groups across a variety of settings, including educational systems (Judge & Piccolo, 2004). Recent empirical studies have focused on the personal and behavioral characteristics of transformational leaders, some of which link to relational accountability, or, the degree to which a leader effectively and credibly responds to the experiences, values and goals of followers, what Bass (1985) called “individual consideration”. In further refinements, studies examining underlying aspects of relational accountability and transformational leadership indicate that increased trust levels in work groups, and between leaders and subordinates, depends upon the quality of the relationship and communication. It appears that, along with general personality factors such as extroversion, and the development of a clear vision, leaders must demonstrate skilled communication that responds effectively to the emotions, motivational investments, goals, and values of followers (Caruso, Mayer, & Salovey, 2002). Such responsiveness may require greater skill and awareness in a multicultural setting, where the appropriateness of some strategies or styles may be less clear given the greater variance in expectations, values, experiences, and expressive styles within the group (Jung, Yammarino, & Lee, 2009). This paper aims to integrate contemporary theories and research on leadership with factors likely to influence effectiveness of communication in a multicultural education setting. Several brief case examples will be offered to illustrate the challenge for leaders where cultural and other forms of diversity are high. These examples will include classroom process, administrative systems, and recommendations for leadership components in curriculum development. Keywords: Transformational Leadership, Education, Application, Multi-cultural
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